Due to increased life expectancy, the elderly population is on the rise bringing an increased focus on healthy ageing that could reduce the high costs of health care. At the eye level, age-related changes are multiple, occur in all ocular tissues and physiological state and are the precursors of a multitude of ocular age-related diseases. Moreover, systemic diseases associated with ageing can also have detrimental effects on the eye. This lecture will concentrate on the effect of cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer’s disease on the functional and structural health of the eye. Strategies for dealing with patients with Alzheimer’s disease in the optometric practice will also be discussed.